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Social Movements in Framing Perspectives: A Study on Corruption Case Issues in Indonesia

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Social Movements in Framing Perspectives: A Study on Corruption Case Issues in Indonesia

Achmad Jamil

Abstract


Penelitian ini melihat gerakan sosial dengan menggunakan perspektif framing. Dua teori digunakan, yaitu teori framing dan teori gerakan sosial. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode studi kasus, yaitu: studi kasus instrumental. Kasus yang dianalisis dalam penelitian ini adalah 10 kasus penting yang berkaitan dengan perselisihan antara Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) dan Polisi Nasional (Polri) antara tahun 2009 dan 2012. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam, tinjauan dokumen, dan analisis teks. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada upaya khusus dari aktor-aktor gerakan pro-KPK (yaitu: hubungan masyarakat KPK) untuk mendekati atau mempengaruhi media agar versi berita mereka lebih banyak beredar di media. Temuan ini membuktikan bahwa keberhasilan gerakan sosial dalam perselisihan KPK-Polri, di mana laporan berita di media terutama mendukung KPK, bukan karena keberhasilan aktor gerakan sosial dalam mendekati media, melainkan karena kesesuaian nilai-nilai antara jurnalis dan aktor gerakan sosial. Hasil penelitian ini memiliki implikasi untuk teori pada hubungan antara frame, media dan gerakan sosial. Peneliti mengusulkan suatu model untuk menggambarkan hubungan antara para aktor gerakan sosial, media / jurnalis, framing media, dan framing khalayak. Model ini merupakan pengembangan dari model yang diusulkan oleh Gamson, Scheufele, Benford, dan Snow.

 

This research looks at social movement by using framing perspective. Two theories are used, namely framing theory and social movement theory. This research uses the case study method, i.e.: instrumental case study. The cases analyzed in this study are 10 important cases pertaining to the dispute between the Corruption eradication Commission (KPK) and the National Police (Polri) between 2009 and 2012. data is collected through observation, in-depth interviews, documents review, and text analysis. This study shows that there is no special effort from pro-KPK movements’ actors (i.e.: the public relations of KPK) to approach or influence the media in order to have their version of news circulated more in the media. This findings proves that the success of social movements in the KPK-Polri disputes, where the news reports in the media predominantly support the KPK, is not due to the success of social movement actors in approaching the media, but rather because of the congruence of values   between the journalists and social movement actors. Results of this study have implications for theories on the relationship between frames, media and social movements. The researcher proposes a model to portray the connection between the actors of social movements, media/journalists, media framing, and audience framing. This model is a development of the model proposed by Gamson, Scheufele, Benford, and Snow. 


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Keywords


Social movement, framing and social movement, media and social movement, core framing, frame alignment, dynamics and framing processes, frame social movement actors

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