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Self-Identification and Repositioning of the Tengananese in the Discourse of Adat Community in Bali

I Wayan Suyadnya


Abstract


Abstrak

Bersama dengan agama Hindu dan budaya, adat dianggap sebagai karakteristik yang kuat untuk menggambarkan kadar kebalian (jati diri) orang Bali. Adat muncul sebagai kontrol bagi munculnya masalah-masalah sosial, agama, dan budaya. Pada praktiknya adat juga menunjukkan dominasi yang kuat untuk mendisiplinkan masyarakatnya untuk selalu patuh pada regulasi negara. Namun, wacana tentang adat juga memberikan gambaran bagaimana adat dapat digunakan sebagai strategi pembeda dalam praktik-praktik adat keseharian. Mengambil studi etnografi di Tenganan Pegringsingan, suatu komunitas di dalam pustaka kolonial sering disebut dengan Bali Aga, artikel ini menginvestigasi bagaimana adat dibentuk dan digunakan untuk mendefinisikan identitas dan mereposisi diri mereka dalam wacana dominan Bali selatan. Artikel ini menantang asumsi umum yang menyebutkan bahwa pasca-Reformasi, gerakan kebangkitan adat dilakukan untuk mencapai pengakuan dan mendapatkan proteksi dari negara. Artikel ini justru menunjukkan bahwa gerakan adat yang ada di Bali cenderung keluar dari pakem gerakan adat internasional. Gerakan adat yang dibangun tidak memiliki korelasi dengan gerakan masyarakat adat global. Artikel ini berargumentasi bahwa orang Tenganan hanya memanfaatkan strategi identifikasi diri untuk menegaskan perbedaan posisi kelompok mereka di Bali.

 

Abstract

 

Along with Hinduism (agama) and culture (budaya), adat is recognized as a strong characteristic to describe the level of kebalian. Adat appears as a control for the emergence of social, religious, and cultural problems. In practice, it also shows a strong dominance to discipline members of community to adhere to state regulations. However, the discourse on adat also provides an illustration of how adat can be used as a differentiating strategy in everyday customary practices. In performing an ethnographic study in Tenganan Pegringsingan, a community that in colonial literature is referred as “Bali Aga”, this article investigates how adat is shaped and deployed by various actors to define their identity and reposition themselves in the dominant discourse of southern Bali. This article challenges the general assumption that after the Reformation, the adat revival movement was carried out to achieve recognition and gain protection from the state. This article instead shows that the indigenous movement in Bali tend to come out of the grip of the global indigenous movement. The movement that was constructed does not correlate with the global indigenous movement. The article argues that the Tenganan people only used self-identification strategies to emphasize the differences in their group's position in Bali.


Keywords


adat, marginalization, indigenous, identity and social movement

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