MAKARA Seri Teknologi (MAKARA of Technology Series) is a scientific journal publishing original articles on new knowledge and research or research application with current issues in technology. The journal is published by the Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia and provides a broad-based forum for the publication and sharing of ongoing research and development in technology. The paper to be presented in this journal is addressed to the editorial office or e-mail. The complete information regarding the procedures to send an article is available in each volume and on its website. All articles will be subjected to double-blind peer review process following a review by the editors. MAKARA Seri Teknologi is an elaboration of MAKARA Seri B: Sains dan Teknologi that was the improvement of Jurnal Penelitian Universitas Indonesia MAKARA, which has been published since Januari 1997. Starting from 2008, the journal has been periodically published three times a year (April, August, and December). Full text articles are available from Volume 6 No. 1 April 2002 free of charge.