e-ISSN 2355-6641       print ISSN 1978-1989

Filipino College Students' Views on The Value of Phisical Appeal to Political Leadership

Font Size:  Small  Medium  Large

Filipino College Students' Views on The Value of Phisical Appeal to Political Leadership

Jonalou S. Labor


Musings of thirty-six college students from three higher educational institutions in the Manila, Philippines were used to look at the constructs of physical appeal and its power to influence leadership. By thematically analyzing the musings ofthe students, the research found physical appeal concepts that are associated toleadership. The study revealed that the students perceive leadership in two ways:from “within” the leader such as skills and knowledge, and from the “outside”where leadership is associated to goals, to influences, and to authority. In termsof physical appeal, leaders are expected to possess physical beauty (kagandahanganyo). Moreover, leaders are seen as individuals who have good manners(kagandahang asal). Interestingly, the college students claimed that leadershipshould also be based on capacity (kakayanan) and connection (koneksyon). Thesefindings revealed that leadership has its physical and ethical forms that help thestudents visualize their idealized national political leader.


Alcala, S. & Najar, N. (2013). Changing Notions of Beauty: Media Portrayaland Skin Perception. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/3591665/Changing_Notions_of_Beauty_Media_Portrayal_and_Skin_Perception Astin, H. S., & Leland, C. (1991). Women of influence, women of vision: A crossgenerationalstudy of leaders and social change. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication. (n.d.) “Survey on InternetAccess and Use By Filipino School Children” Retrieved from http://www.aijc.com.ph/survey_internet_access.pdf Burke, T. (2008). The Modern Girl and Commodity Culture. In A. Weinbaum, L.Thomas, P. Ramamurthy, U. Poiger, M. Y. Dong, & T. Barlow, The ModernGirl Around the World: Consumption, Modernity, and Globalization. London:Duke University Press, 362-365.Cherulnik, P. (1995). Physical Appearance, Social Skill, and Performance as a Leadership Candidate. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16 (3), 287-295. Chickering, A. W., & Reisser, L. (1993). Education and identity (2nd ed.). SanFrancisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.Cobley, P. (2009). Semiotics of Media and Culture. The Routledge companion tosemiotics (pp. 135-149). London: Routledge.Covar, P. (1993). Kaalamang bayang dalumat ng pagkataong Pilipino. Manila,Philippines: University of the Philippines College of Social Sciences andPhilosophy.Del Mundo, C. (1998). Native Resistance: Philippine Cinema and Colonialism.Manila, Philippines: De La Salle University Press. De Viana, A. (2013). Stories Rarely Told: The Hidden Essays and Stories inPhilippine History.  Manila, Philippines: New Day Publishing. Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2007). Developing leadership capacity incollege students: Findings from a national study. A Report from the MultiInstitutionalStudy of Leadership. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs.Dutton, D. (2010). TED.com (producer). A Darwinian Theory of Beauty. Retrievedfrom http://www.ted.com/talks/denis_dutton_a_darwinian_theory_of_beauty?language=enEnriquez, V. G. (1993). Developing a Filipino Psychology. in A.M. Navarro andF.Lagbao-Bolante. (2007) Mga babasahin sa Agham Panlipunang Pilipino:Sikolohiyang Pilipino, Pilipinohiya, at Pantayong Pananaw. Manila,Philippines: C&E Publishing, Inc. Enriquez, V. G. (1994). From colonial to liberation psychology: the Philippineexperience. Manila, Philippines: De La Salle University Press.Ford, D. & Kiran, M.I. (2008). Perceived Leader Effectiveness acrossOrganizational Roles:  Exploratory Evidence from Central Eurasia. EurasianJournal of Business and Economics, 1 (2), 131-156. Gastardo-Conaco, M. C. (2005). The development of a Filipino indigenouspsychology. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 38, 1-17.Gregory, R. L. (1966). Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing New York: McGrawHill Hall, D. R. (2006). Bleaching Beauty: Light Skin as a Filipina Ideal. Quezon City,Philippines: Giraffe Books.Helgesen, S. (1995). The female advantage: Women’s ways of leadership. New York: Doubleday Currency.Hofstede, G. (2001). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede _malaysia.shtml Hogg, M. A. (2001). A Social Identity Theory of Leadership. Personality andSocial Psychology Review. 5 (3), 184-200.  Jackson, L., Sullivan, L. & Hymes, J. (2001). Gender, Gender Role, and PhysicalAppearance. The Journal of Psychology, 121 (1), 51-56.  Jayasingam, S. & Cheng, M.Y. (2009). Leadership Styles and Perception ofEffectiveness: Enlightening Malaysian Managers . Asian Social Sciences, 5(2), 54-65. King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.Komives, S., Mainella, F., Longerbeam, S., Osteen, L., & Owen, J. (2006). ALeadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a GroundedTheory. Journal of College Students Development, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 401-418.  Little, A. (2012). Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success. EvolutionaryPsychology, 10 (5), 782-801. Maggay, M. (1999). Understanding ambiguity in Filipino communication patterns.Quezon City, Philippines: Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture(ISACC).Maggay, M. (2002) Pahiwatig: kagawiang pangkomunikasyon ng Filipino. QuezonCity, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.  Orsal, C. (2007). Movie Queen: Pagbuo ng Mito at Kapangyarihang Kultural ngBabae sa Lipunan. Manila, Philippines: New Day Publishers Paustian-Underdahl, S.; Walker, L.S.; & Woehr, D.J. (2014). Gender and Perceptionof Leadership Effectiveness: A Meta-analysis of contextual moderators.Journal of Applied Psychology, 99 (6), 1129-1145.  Reyes- Encanto, G. (2004). Constructing the Filipina: A History of Women’sMagazine (1891-2002). Quezon City, Philippines: University of thePhilippines Press. Riggio, H. & Riggio, R. (2010). Appearance-based Traits Inference and Voting:Evolutionary Roots and Implications for Leadership. J Nonverbal Behavior,34, 119-125. Roffey, B. (2000). ‘The voice of reason’? Cultural dynamics and gender roles in Philippines business leadership. Retrieved from http://commerce.flinders.edu.au/research/00-5.htm Rosser, V. J. (2003). ‘Faculty and Staff Members’ Perceptions of EffectiveLeadership: Are There Differences Between Women and Men Leaders?’,Equity & Excellence in Education, 36 (1), 71-81. Rule, N. & Ambady, N. (2008). The Face of Success: Inferences from ChiefExecutive Officers’ Appearance Predict Company Profits. Association ofPsychological Science, 19 (2), 109-111. Sebastian, A.G. (2013). Digital and Analog Citizenship: A Study on the Online andOffline Civic Engagement and Political Participation of the Filipino YouthLiving in Metro Manila. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, College ofMass Communication, University of the Philippines Diliman, Servando, K. (2009). “GMA’s fashion legacy a ‘hit and miss’” Retrieved fromhttp://www.abs-cbnnews.com/07/24/09/gmas-fashion-legacy-hit-and-miss Shannon, M. & Stark, P. (2003). The Influence of Physical Appearance on PersonnelSelection. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(6), 613-624. Shehane, M., Sturtevant, K., Moore, L.; & Dooley, K. (2012). First-year studentsperceptions related to leadership awareness and influences. Journal ofLeadership Education, 11 (1), 140-156. Shin, J. (2014). From Ebony to Ivory: Colorism in the Philippines. Retrieved fromJapan Sociology: http://japansociology.com/2014/05/27/from-ebony-toivory-colorism-in-the-philippines/Sinogba, E. (2013). “Nancy Binay memes and us” Retrieved last November 29, 2014from http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/29313-nancy-binay-memes-filipinos Sobritchea, C. (2000). Women and Leadership in Asia: Towards TransformativePolitics. In Albina P. Fernandez (ed.) Review of Women’s Studies, 10 (1-2),126-138. Sobritchea, C. (2001). Women in Southeast Asia: Have They Come a Long Way?Perspectives. Manila, Philippines: Konrad-Adenauer- Stifung, 3-26. Sobritchea, C. (2005). Representations of Gender Inequality and Women’s Issuesin Philippine Feminist Discourses. Asian Center for Women’s Studies, 11 (2),67-88. 


Political Leadership, Physical Appeal, Philippine



Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.