MAKARA Journal of Science publishes high quality research on fundamental science and provides a broad-based forum for the information sharing of ongoing research and development in science. Topics covered include physics, chemistry and biology. All submitted manuscripts will be subjected to the peer review process following a thorough inspection by the editors. Makara Journal of Science is the successor to the "MAKARA of Science Series" and "Makara Sains", which have been published since 1997. Starting from 2014, the journal has been periodically published four times a year (March, June, September, and December). Publication in this journal is free of charge and all published papers are available online through open access.