MAKARA Seri Sains (MAKARA of Science Series) is a scientific journal publishing original articles on new knowledge and research or research application with current issues in basic science. The journal is published by the Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia and provides a broad-based forum for the publication and sharing of ongoing research and development in science. The paper to be presented in this journal is addressed to the editorial office or e-mail. The complete information regarding the procedures to send an article is available in each volume and on its website. All articles will be subjected to double-blind peer review process following a review by the editors. MAKARA Seri Sains is a further model of MAKARA Series B: Area of Sciences and Technology as the improvement version of Universitas Indonesia Scientific Journal, MAKARA, which has been published since 1997. Starting from 2012, the journal has been periodically published three times a year (April, August, and December). Full text articles are available from Volume 6 No. 1 April 2002 free of charge.