Vol 21, No 3 (2017) > Industrial Engineering >

Indonesia’s Municipal Solid Waste 3R and Waste to Energy Programs

Farizal Farizal 1 , Radityo Aji 1 , Amar Rachman 1 , Nasruddin Nasruddin 2 , Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia 3


  1. Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  3. Faculty of Integrated Technologies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam


Abstract: Like most cities in the world, population in Indonesia continues to grow every year. Problems that can arise from this are the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) production and the growing demand for electricity. To deal with the problems, Indonesian government runs 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and WTE (Waste to Energy) Programs simultaneously. 3R program aims to reduce the number of waste, while WTE program aims to generate electricity as an alternative energy source. This study aims to find out the optimal proportion of MSW treated through the 3R and WTE programs. For the purpose a goal programming model has been developed and solved using LINGO 11. The results showed that the optimal proportion of MSW through the 3R program is 49.90%, 12.37% through WTE program. This leaves 37.73% of waste untreated. The electricity generated from WTE program reached 1,229.695 GWh, total emissions can be saved is 1,809,208.2 tons CO2 equivalent and total land-use for the programs is 4,036,239.1 m2. This study was enriched by performing some scenarios, i.e. changing budget allocation of WTE program, shifting the limit of total emission from waste management and shifting the limit of land-use for waste treatment.
Keywords: 3R, goal programming, MSW, Optimization, WTE
Published at: Vol 21, No 3 (2017) pages: 153-159

Access Counter: 898 views, 1249 PDF downloads, .

Full PDF Download


Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Statistik Indonesia: Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2015, http://istmat.info/files/uploads/47409/statistical_yearbook_ of_indonesia_2015.pdf, 2015.

Y.T. Chong, K.M. Teo, L.C. Tang, A lifecyclebased sustainability indicator framework for wasteto-energy systems and a proposed metric of sustainability, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 56 (2015) 787.

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan. Presentasi Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan. http://www.menlh.go.id/, 2014 (in Indonesia).

Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), Rencana Umum Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik 2015-2024. Perusahaan Listrik Negara, Jakarta, 2014 (in Indonesia).

Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN), Statistik PLN 2014. Perusahaan Listrik Negara, Jakarta, 2014 (in Indonesia).

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Laporan Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan 2013. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Jakarta, 2013.

N.-B. Chang, C. Qi, K. Islam, F. Hossain, J. Clean. Prod. 20 (2011) 1.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program, http://www. epa.gov, 2014.

P.H. Farizal, A. Rachman, Preceeding of Regional Conference on Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering RCMME. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2013.

B. Samiha, Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci.4/3 (2013) 129.

H. Aadal, K.G. Rad, A.B. Fard, P.G. Sabet, J. Appl. Environ. 3/10 (2013) 160.

Q.Z. Yang, J. Zhou, K. Xu, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev. 5/2 (2014) 217.

A. Tozlu, E. Özahi, A. Abuşoğlu, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 54 (2016) 809.

M. Münster, P. Meibom, Energy 36/3 (2011) 1612.

Y.H. Cheng, Bioresour. Technol. 101/11 (2010) 381.

H.A. Taha, Operations Research: an Introduction, 8th ed, Pearson International Edition, 2007.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) Version 3.02 User’s Guide, https://www3.epa.gov/ttncatc1/ dir1/landgem-v302-guide.pdf, 2005.

Argonne National Laboratory. Updated Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions Factor and Their Probabilty Distribution Functions for Electric Generating Units. US Department of Energy, Chicago, 2012.

B.K. Adhikari, A. Trémier, S. Barrington, J. Martinez, M. Daumoin, J. Environ. Manage. 116 (2013) 163.

E. Damanhuri, Revitalisasi – Rehabilitasi TPA open dumping menuju TPA yang lebih baik. Workshop InovasiTeknologiPeningkatanKualitas TPA.DitJendCiptaKarya, Jakarta, 2009 (in Indonesian).

KementerianEnergiSumberDayaManusia. StatistikEnergiBaruTerbarukandanKonservasiEnergi (EBTKE) 2014. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta, 2014 (in Indonesian).

Lindo Systems Inc., LINGO 17.0 - Optimization Modeling Software for Linear, Nonlinear, and Integer Programming, http://lindo.com/index.php/products/ lingo-and-optimization-modeling, 2017.