Vol 22, No 1 (2018) > MJT Topical Conference on Technology >

Prerequisites for Public Acceptance of Waste-to-Energy Plants: Evidence from Germany and Indonesia

Uwe Lahl 1 , Barbara Zeschmar-Lahl 2


  1. Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen und Geodaesie, Institut IWAR, Fachgebiet, Abfalltechnik, Petersenstraβe 13, 64287 Darmstadt
  2. BZL Kommunikation und Projektsteuerung GmbH, Lindenstraße 33, 28876 Oyten, Germany


Abstract: The construction of waste incinerators often encounters resistance from the public. A minimum requirement for the acceptance of these installations is a modern air pollution control technology and a safe disposal of its residues. However, many products that enter the waste stream already contain heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other harmful substances. This is also a challenge for recycling. This problem can only be solved by binding specifications for chemicals in and design for recycling of products.
Keywords: acceptance, air pollution control, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), waste-to-energy
Published at: Vol 22, No 1 (2018) pages: 17-27

Access Counter: 52 views, 54 PDF downloads, .

Full PDF Download


UNEP, ISWA 2015, Global Waste Management Outlook (GWMO), 2015.

R. Irfany, Govt Urged to Stop Waste-to-Energy Projects,TEMPO.CO. https://en.tempo.co/read/news/ 2017/09/20/056910854/Govt-Urged-to-Stop-Waste-to-Energy-Projects, 2017.

Bundesministerium für Umwelt (Ed.), Müll-verbrennung – ein Gefahrenherd? (in German), http://www.bmu.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/muellverbrennung_dioxin.pdf, 2005.

IFEU, Beitrag der Abfallwirtschaft zur nachhal-tigen Entwicklung in Deutschland, Teilbericht Siedlungsabfälle (in German), https://www.umweltbun-de-samt.de/sites/default/files/medien/publikation/long/ 2899.pdf, 2004.

C. Spohn, M. Treder (ITAD), Betreiber von Ab-fallverbrennungsanlagen im Spannungsfeld des BVT-Merkblatts (in German), https://www.itad.de/ information/studien/BREFITADTKBerlinJan2016. pdf, 2016.

ITAD – Interessengemeinschaft der thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen in Deutschland e.V., Düsseldorf, Emissionen (in German), https://www. itad.de/ITAD/emisionen, 2018.

MSWI Bielefeld, Emission report 2016 (in Ger-man), pages 1 and 6, http://www.mva-bielefeld.de/ _Downloads/Emissionsberichte/MVA_Biele-feld__ Emissionsbericht_2016.pdf, 2017.

P. Douglas, A. Freni-Sterrantino, M L. Sanchez, D.C. Ashworth, R.E. Ghosh, D. Fecht, A. Font, M. Blangiardo, J. Gulliver, M.B. Toledano, P. Elliott, K. de Hoogh, G.W. Fuller, A.L. Hansell, Environ. Sci. Technol. 51 (2017) 7511.

IFEU, Ökobilanz thermischer Entsorgungssysteme für brennbare Abfälle in Nordrhein-Westfalen (in German), https://www.ifeu.de/abfallwirtschaft/pdf/ therm_entsorg.pdf, 2007.

U. Lahl, B. Zeschmar-Lahl, in: K.J. Thomé-Kozmiensky, L. Pelloni (Eds.): Waste Management, 2, 2011, p.363.

T. Eikmann, S. Eikmann, Humantoxikologische Bewertung von Abfallbehandlungsanlagen (in German), http://www.itad.de/media/www.itad.de/ org/med_90034/289_eikmann2007_humantoxikologischebewertung.pdf, 2007.

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt – LfU Bayern, 22.8.2008, cited in U. Lahl, W. Steven, Müllmaga-zin 4 (2008) 4-11 (in German).

German Federal Government, Verordnung zur Ein-führung einer Ersatzbaustoffverordnung, zur Neufassung der Bundes-Bodenschutz- und Alt-lastenverordnung und zur Änderung der Depo-nieverordnung und der Gewerbeabfallverordnung (2017) (in German).

J. Petrlik, L. Bell, Toxic ash poisons our food chain, International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN), April 2017.

M. Wilken, B. Zeschmar-Lahl (in German), Müll-Handbuch, Kz. 1752, 1994.

E. Abad, M.A. Adrados, J. Caixach, B. Fabrellas, J. Rivera, Chemosphere 40 (2000) 1143.

UNEP: Toolkit for Identification and Quantifica-tion of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Un-intentional POPs under Article 5 of the Stockholm Convention, 2003.

M. Standaert, YaleEnvironment360, April 20, 2017, https://e360.yale.edu/features/as-china-pushes-waste- to-energy-incinerators-protests-are-mounting, 2017.

P. Quicker, Y. Noel, R. Daschner, M. Faulstich, U. Raesfeld, M. Gleis, ReSource 2 (2011) 50-54 (in German).

Wien Energie, https://www.wienenergie.at/epor-tal3/ ep/channelView.do/channelId/-49106, Screenshot, 2018.

E. Damanhuri, W. Handoko, T. Padmi, In: A. Paria-tamby, M. Tanaka (Eds.), Municipal Solid Waste Management in Asia and the Pacific Islands: Chal-lenges and Strategic Solutions, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013, 139-155.

C. Velis, Waste pickers in Global South: Informal recycling sector in a circular economy era, Waste Manag. Res. 35 (2017), 329-331.

Carbon Trust, Waste to energy in Indonesia. As-sessing opportunities and barriers using insights from the UK and beyond. CTC831, June 2014.

R. de Bercegol, J. Cavé, A. Nguyen Thai Huyen, Resour. 6 (2017) 70.

L. Bell, R. Weber, B. De Borst, M.C. Paun, I. Holoubeck, A. Watson, J. Vijgen, Assessment of POPs contaminated sites and the need for stringent soil standards for food and feed safety. Expert meeting on Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practices and Toolkit for Identifica-tion and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Fu-rans and Other Unintentional Persistent Organic Pollutants under the Stockholm Convention. Brati-slava, Slovakia, 25–27 October 2016.

SAICM, Chemicals in products programme. SAICM/ICCM.4/10, http://www.saicm.org/Por-tals/ 12/Documents/EPI/CiP%20programme%20October2015_Final.pdf, 2015.

K. Kaiser, M. Schmid, M. Schlummer, Recycling, 3/1 (2018) 1; doi:10.3390/recycling3010001.

D.J. Richards, R.A. Frosch, in: D.J. Richards (Ed.): The Industrial Green Game: Implications for Envi-ronmental Design and Management, 1–34, https://www.nap.edu/read/4982/chapter/2, 1997.